In Grammar By Alexander

Vitendo hali katika Kiingereza (Stative Verbs)

Verbs Kiingereza inaweza kuwa classified na vigezo mbalimbali, na mmoja wao — uhamisho wa hatua au hali ya somo. Ipasavyo, vitenzi vyote zinaweza kugawanywa katika vitendo nguvu au hatua Dynamic Verbs na vitendo tuli au hali Stative Verbs

Vitendo nguvu taarifa kwamba somo hufanya baadhi ya hatua za kimwili. Kundi hili ni pamoja wengi wa vitendo inajulikana to eat, to run, to write, to burn, etc. na kila mmoja wao inaeleza maalum hatua kimwili wazi.

Jambo jingine — maneno ya serikali. Kazi yao ni wazi kutoka cheo: wao kufikisha hadhi, hisia, mitazamo, michakato ya akili, na sifa nyingine ya somo. Kwa mfano, vitendo hali ni maneno rahisi kama hayo, na tunajua jinsi to love na to hate to remember na to forget to understand na to believe to look na to feel Vitendo hivi tunapata karibu somo la kwanza katika lugha ya Kiingereza na hawajui hata kwamba wao kuanguka katika uainishaji fulani na kuwa na sifa zao za sarufi. Tofauti kubwa kutoka vitenzi nguvu kwamba si kutumika wakati wa kundi Continuous yaani Hawawezi kuwa na muda mrefu. Hakika, huwezi kuangalia kama tunajua au kuamini, siyo mchakato wa kimwili, lakini kutokana na shughuli ya akili ya binadamu. Huo unaweza kuwa alisema kuhusu yote Stative Verbs (bila shaka, isipokuwa kwa baadhi, kama ilivyo kawaida katika lugha ya Kiingereza).

Kwanza, hebu kujua nini kingine vitenzi ni Stative Verbs na wanayo kushiriki makundi:

  1. Vitendo kimwili mtazamo verbs of physical perception to hear to notice to see
  2. Vitendo la hisia hali verbs denoting emotions to adore to care for to detest to dislike to hate to like to love to respect
  3. Vitendo hamu verbs denoting wish to desire to want to wish
  4. Vitendo la shughuli ya akili verbs denoting mental processes to admire (kwa maana ya «wakishangilia»), to appreciate to assume to believe (kuamini), to consider (kuhesabu mtu yeyote kuonekana kama), to doubt to expect ( kuamini), to feel (kuamini), to imagine to know to mind (mawazo), to perceive to presume to recall to recognize to recollect to regard to remember to suppose to think (kufikiri) , to trust to understand
  5. Vitendo uhusiano relational verbs to apply to be to belong to concern to consist to contain to depend to deserve to differ to equal to fit to have to hold (kuweka), to include to involve to lack to matter to need to owe to own to possess to remain to require to resemble to result to signify to suffice
  6. Vitendo vingine: to agree to allow to appear (kuonekana), to astonish to claim to consent to displease to envy to fail to do to feel to find to forbid to forgive to intend to interest to keep doing to manage to do to mean to object to please to prefer to prevent to puzzle to realize to refuse to remind to satisfy to seem to smell to sound , to succeed to suit to surprise to taste to tend to value

Inaonekana kwamba kukumbuka orodha ndefu ya kitu chochote lisilohusiana neno la Kiingereza ni tu unrealistic. Kwa kweli, kufanya hivyo si muhimu, jambo kuu — kuelewa kanuni ambayo ilikuwa katika kitendo hasa, na ni muhimu kukumbuka kwamba vitendo hivi si kuashiria hatua za kimwili. Unaweza tu kukumbuka majina ya vikundi, na kumbuka maneno yao wenyewe.

Hivyo tuna kukumbuka kwamba vitendo hivi vyote ni vitendo wa hali na si kuwatumia katika nyakati za kundi Continuous kwa sababu hatutaki kuonekana hawajui kusoma na kuandika! Fikiria maneno rahisi zaidi kwa Kiingereza:

  • I understand you / I understand what you mean
  • I need a minute to write it down
  • I like roses
  • I have a car

Sisi kamwe kusema I’m understanding na I’m needing kwa Kiingereza wazi hotuba.

Inaonekana kwamba kila kitu ni wazi, na maana hiyo inakuja wakati wa majadiliano juu tofauti. Katika kesi hiyo wao itajulikana kwa Waingereza polysemous neno, dvs. uwezo wa kuwa na lexical maana zaidi ya moja. Kwa mfano, kitendo hicho anaweza kuwa na thamani ya hatua ya kimwili na ni mali ya moja ya aina ya vitenzi serikali. Kati yao, kirafiki na ukoo kitendo to see

to see — tazama stative yaliyoanza dynamic

I see a woman in an elegant suit. – I see a woman in an elegant suit. – Mimi naona mwanamke katika suti ya kifahari.

He’s seeing his parents after work. – He’s seeing his parents after work. – Yeye hukutana na wazazi baada ya kazi.

Hapa ni mfano mwingine:

to appear — kuonekana stative juu ya hatua dynamic

She appears to be very happy with her new fianc é. — Nadhani yeye ni furaha sana kwa bibi yake mpya.

My favourite band is appearing on Sunday. – My favourite band is appearing on Sunday. – Ni nini bendi yako favorite kufanya siku ya Jumapili.

Vitendo taste (ladha / ladha), smell (harufu / harufu), look (kuangalia / kuangalia), feel (kuhisi / kugusa), think (kufikiri / kutafakari) pia ni chini ya kanuni hii. Kuelewa kama kitendo katika kesi fulani, nguvu au tuli, unahitaji uelewa mzuri wa mazingira ambayo hutumiwa.

Ni ya kuvutia kuchunguza matumizi ya kitendo to have wote wawili tuli na nguvu. Hivyo, wakati to have hali kitendo na ni kuweka «kuwa», «na», haiwezi kutumika katika Continuous Tenses Lakini kama to have sehemu endelevu wa kujieleza to have dinner to have a shower alianza kufanya kazi kama kitendo nguvu:

We have a big house in the suburbs. – We have a big house in the suburbs. – Tuna nyumba kubwa nje kidogo ya mji.

I’m having lunch, so I’ll call you later. – kuwaita ninyi baadaye. I’m having lunch, so I’ll call you later. – I’m having lunch, so I’ll call you later. – Sasa nina chakula cha jioni, hivyo wito nyuma baadaye.

Kitendo to be pia, inaweza kutumika katika nyakati za kundi Continuous lakini tu chini ya baadhi ya vikwazo: zitatumika kwa maambukizi ya hali ya muda au tabia, kama vile:

You are being too quiet today. What’s wrong? – You are being too quiet today. What’s wrong? – Kitu kweli ruzuku leo. Ni nini kilichotokea?

She is being a pop-star. – She is being a pop-star. – Ni kutenda kama nyota pop.

Aidha, kitendo to be kuwekwa katika Continuous kutoka masuala ya kisarufi kwa sauti tulivu katika aina Present Continuous Passive na Past Continuous Passive

A new church is being built in our district. – ya wilaya. A new church is being built in our district. – A new church is being built in our district. – Katika wilaya yetu kujenga kanisa jipya.

An applicant was being interviewed when I came to the office yesterday morning. – ofisini jana asubuhi. An applicant was being interviewed when I came to the office yesterday morning. – An applicant was being interviewed when I came to the office yesterday morning. – Nilipofika ofisini jana asubuhi, mgombea kwa mahojiano ya kazi ulifanyika.

Kitendo to enjoy inaweza kutumika katika Continuous Tenses ikiwa ni inaashiria furaha kitu maalum:

I’m enjoying my holiday in Italy. – I’m enjoying my holiday in Italy. – Mimi nina nzuri sana juu ya likizo nchini Italia.

I’m enjoying the performance a lot. – I’m enjoying the performance a lot. – Mimi kama njia ya utendaji hii!

Katika kesi nyingine, to enjoy vitendo kama hali kitendo:

I enjoy watching horror films at night. – I enjoy watching horror films at night. – Mimi kama kuangalia sinema horror usiku.

Vitendo to look (kuangalia), to feel (kujisikia), to hurt na to ache (kuumiza) zinaweza kutumika katika nyakati za Continuous na katika muda Simple na thamani haitabadilika, na itakuwa kuangalia kama kosa kisarufi.

You’re looking (= you look) much younger in this brightly-colored summer dress. – mdogo sana katika hii brightly-rangi majira ya mavazi. You’re looking (= you look) much younger in this brightly-colored summer dress. – You’re looking (= you look) much younger in this brightly-colored summer dress. – Hii mkali majira ya mavazi wewe kuangalia mdogo sana.

I’m feeling (= I feel) more confident after my promotion. – kujiamini zaidi baada ya kukuza yangu. I’m feeling (= I feel) more confident after my promotion. – I’m feeling (= I feel) more confident after my promotion. – Mimi kujisikia kujiamini zaidi baada ya ongezeko.

My leg hurts (is hurting) me. – My leg hurts (is hurting) me. – Mguu machungu.

Na hatimaye, kuvutia zaidi. Wengi wa vitendo hali, unaweza kutumia muda Continuous kueleza hisia mkali chanya au hasi au matibabu maalum:

I’m loving you. – I’m loving you. – Nakupenda sana!

I’m hating the way you treat waiters. – I’m hating the way you treat waiters. – I hate ni jinsi kutibu watumishi.

I’m needing you, don’t leave! – I’m needing you, don’t leave! – Je, kweli haja yangu, hawaendi!

Vitendo hali Stative Verbs inaweza kuonekana kama mada ngumu, lakini wala hofu kama huna mara moja kuelewa kabisa na wala kukumbuka zote vitendo na tofauti katika maadili yao. Wengi kusoma vitabu kwa Kiingereza, fikiria kwa nini mwandishi anatumia muda maalum na jinsi yeye anaonyesha hilo, na haja ya kufundisha vitendo tuli wewe tu kutoweka. Kutaja ya vitendo tuli ni katika maelezo ya karibu kila wakati lugha ya Kiingereza, hivyo mapema au baadaye suala hili itakuwa alipewa peke yake.

 

Grammar

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