In Grammar By Catherine

Vihusishi ya mahali katika Kiingereza : at, in, on

Sheria ya kutumia viunganishi ya mahali katika lugha ya Kiingereza si sana ambayo ni kwa nini hawana Unikumbuke kwa bidii kama inaweza kuonekana katika mtazamo wa kwanza, na hata zaidi kama huna kwenda katika maelezo na kila aina ya isipokuwa, ambayo ni maarufu kwa lugha ya Kiingereza. Lakini hii si kesi yetu na wewe, ambayo ni kwa nini maelezo kuwa! Napendekeza kuelewa ugumu wa kutumia viunganishi at in on kwamba wakati huu itakuwa kuhusiana na eneo. Mada hii inahitaji kuwa na umakini kwa misingi kwamba mara nyingi kabisa uchaguzi kati ya kisingizio moja au nyingine inategemea tu juu ya mazingira au tuseme kutoka mtazamo wetu juu ya hili au mahali hapo. Hivyo, fikiria baadhi ya sheria na mifano.

  1. At
    • Udhuru huu ni kawaida kutumika wakati sisi majadiliano juu hasa mahali, hatua au kihistoria badala ya wilaya au eneo kwa ujumla:

      There were a lot of people at a conference. – mkutano huo. There were a lot of people at a conference. – There were a lot of people at a conference. – Katika mkutano kulikuwa na watu wengi.

      I met him at Jack’s party. – I met him at Jack’s party. – Nilikutana naye kwenye sherehe katika Jack.

      Mapendekezo at a conference na at Jack’s party kutaja maeneo maalum.

    • Tunaweza kutumia kisingizio kwamba kwa mji, kwa maana ya majina ya taasisi au matukio yanayotokea katika mji huo. Ili kufafanua matumizi haya ya kihusishi at napendekeza ya kuzingatia jozi kadhaa ya hukumu:

      There were a lot of artistic people at Dublin Theatre Festival. – Dublin Theatre Festival. There were a lot of artistic people at Dublin Theatre Festival. – There were a lot of artistic people at Dublin Theatre Festival. – Katika sherehe katika Dublin Mimi nilikuwa na mengi ya watu wabunifu.

      There are a lot of artistic people in Dublin. – Dublin. There are a lot of artistic people in Dublin. – There are a lot of artistic people in Dublin. – Katika Dublin, mengi ya watu wabunifu.

      Nadhani tofauti katika maana ni dhahiri katika mfano wa kwanza, Dublin inahusu jina la tamasha Dublin Theatre Festival katika mfano wa pili, sisi tayari kuzungumza juu ya mji. Kwa njia hii, kwa undani vile inaonekana madogo, kama kisingizio, unaweza kubadilisha maana ya hukumu nzima!

      Hapa ni mfano mwingine wa kutafakari:

      I study at Edinburgh. – I study at Edinburgh. – Mimi ni mwanafunzi katika Chuo Kikuu cha Edinburgh.

      I study in Edinburgh. – I study in Edinburgh. – Mimi niko katika Edinburgh.

      Kutumia kisingizio at hukumu ya kwanza inatuwezesha kutumia jina la mji, akimaanisha shule, ambaye jina lake kamili ni The University of Edinburgh Kutumia kisingizio in mfano wa pili, tunazungumzia tu juu ya mji.

    • Sisi pia kutumia kisingizio hii kutaja mashirika mbalimbali (kwa kawaida kwa jina la asasi):

      She works at Gucci. – She works at Gucci. – Ni kazi katika Gucci.

      Lakini wakati huo huo, akizungumza moja kwa moja na mahali ambapo mtu anafanya kazi, matumizi kihusishi in hebu kulinganisha mapendekezo machache:

      She works at River Island. – She works at River Island. – Ni anaendesha katika River Island.

      She works in a shop. – She works in a shop. – Ni kazi katika duka.

      Ingawa mapendekezo yote tunazungumzia moja ya sehemu moja, katika hukumu ya kwanza, sisi kuelekeza nguvu zetu kwenye kampuni hiyo, katika kesi ya pili — kwenye tovuti ya kazi.

      Tafadhali kumbuka: lazima kusema work on a farm lakini work in a factory

    • Matumizi kihusishi at akizungumza ya majengo, kama vile, kwa mfano, at the dentist’s at the supermarket at school at the shop etc Katika kesi hizo, wakati majadiliano juu ya maeneo hayo kama pointi kuhusu baadhi au orientirah.Ispolzuyte udhuru in ukitaka kusisitiza ukweli kwamba mtu au kitu ni ndani ya jengo:

      I stopped at the shop on my way home. – nyumbani. I stopped at the shop on my way home. – I stopped at the shop on my way home. – Mimi kusimamishwa katika duka njiani nyumbani. (kuna duka tu hatua juu ya njia nyumbani)

      It was raining, so I decided to shelter in the shop. – makazi katika duka. It was raining, so I decided to shelter in the shop. – It was raining, so I decided to shelter in the shop. – Ilikuwa ni mvua, hivyo niliamua kuficha katika kuhifadhi. (muhimu hapa ni ukweli kwamba nilikwenda katika jengo yenyewe)

    • Mara nyingi sana at kutumika kabla majina ya majengo katika kesi ambapo ni muhimu si jengo yenyewe, lakini badala ya hatua kwamba unafanyika:

      I was at the cinema yesterday. – I was at the cinema yesterday. – Jana nilikuwa katika ukumbi wa sinema.

      I eat at KFC on Mondays. – I eat at KFC on Mondays. – Mimi kula KFC siku ya Jumatatu.

    • Matumizi kihusishi at anwani kabla:

      Their shop is at 35 Park Road.

      • Lakini si zybyvayte kwamba mara moja kabla ya jina la barabara, kwa kutumia kisingizio on ama in

        The shop is on / in Park Road.

      • Wakati mwingine unaweza kupata matumizi ya kihusishi on katika mazungumzo ya muda mrefu kuhusu mitaani au barabara:

        My car broke down on the Melbourne Highway.

    • Unaweza pia kutumia kisingizio at kabla mitaani jina katika kesi, kama sisi majadiliano juu ya kuanzishwa, iko kwenye mtaa huu:

      The ministers are meeting tomorrow at Downing Street. – The ministers are meeting tomorrow at Downing Street. – Kesho itakuwa mkutano wa mawaziri katika Downing Street. (sisi si kuzungumza juu ya barabara hiyo, na makazi rasmi ya Waziri Mkuu wa Uingereza, ziko katika barabara hii)

      • Majadiliano on Wall Street maana taasisi za kifedha iko katika barabara hii.
    • Preposition at hutumika pia kwa kitendo arrive

      We arrived at the airport in time.

      • Akizungumza juu ya kuwasili katika jiji kubwa, kutumia kihusishi in

        The train arrives in New York at 10.30.

    Kama unaweza kuona, idadi kubwa ya sheria inahusu matumizi ya kihusishi ni at sisi pia kuchunguza kesi ya mtu binafsi ya matumizi ya viunganishi in na on tangu tofauti katika matumizi yao ya ni wazi wakati kulinganisha idadi ya mapendekezo ya kuongeza kidogo kabisa wa kushoto.

  2. On
    • Preposition on itumike wakati akizungumza ya nafasi ya vitu katika nafasi, wakati somo hili huo katika kuwasiliana na uso gorofa on the ceiling on the wall on the floor etc
    • Au, wakati sisi kujua nafasi hii katika mstari sawa, kwa mfano, wakati kuzungumza juu ya mto au juu ya barabara:

      They built the house on the Humber River.

    • Pia ni kisingizio on hutumika wakati kuzungumza juu ya harakati za basi, treni, ndege.
      • Akizungumza ya kusafiri kwa gari au teksi, kutumia kihusishi in
      • Unaweza pia kutumia kihusishi in kama unataka kusisitiza ukweli kwamba mtu au kitu ni tu ndani ya gari (katika kesi hii, kisingizio inaweza kutumika kwa aina yoyote ya gari) mapendekezo haya .Sravnite:

        He always looks through his papers in the taxi. – teksi. He always looks through his papers in the taxi. – He always looks through his papers in the taxi. – Yeye daima kuona nyaraka katika teksi.

        English people read newspapers everywhere, even on the bus. – basi. English people read newspapers everywhere, even on the bus. – English people read newspapers everywhere, even on the bus. – Kiingereza kusoma magazeti kila mahali, hata kwenye basi.

        He was already in the train when I arrived. – aliwasili. He was already in the train when I arrived. – He was already in the train when I arrived. – Alikuwa tayari kwenye treni, nilipofika.

  3. In
    • Preposition in matumizi katika kuzungumza juu ya nafasi ya kitu ndani ya kitu kingine au zaidi katika pande tatu nafasi (ambapo kitu ni wamezungukwa pande zote):

      Let’s go for a walk in the woods.

      My keys are in my bag.

Naam, mimi matumaini, tofauti kubwa kati ya matumizi ya viunganishi ya mahali umejifunza, hebu mtihani wa maarifa yako kwa mtihani ndogo.

 

Grammar

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