In Grammar By Victoria

Vielezi kwa Present Perfect: ​​kalamu neno

Hii unloved na kila mmoja wetu wakati Present Perfect … sasa wakati kamilifu, ambayo ni vigumu kuelewa mtu kujifunza Kiingereza. Sisi si desturi ya kwamba wakati uliopita katika Kiingereza inaweza kuwakilishwa chaguzi mbalimbali, ambayo ni sifa kwa kuwa ni mwandishi inasisitiza katika mapendekezo yake (wakati wa utekelezaji, matokeo yake, muda au ukosefu wake). Muda Present Perfect ni hii wakati kamili, lakini, hata hivyo, kutafsiriwa katika Urusi kitendo wakati uliopita, lakini bado fomu kamilifu.

Na jambo ni kwamba wakati huu, tu mazungumzo juu ya tukio lilitokea, matendo kukamilika. Lakini hatua hizi au matukio kuwa na uhusiano wa moja kwa moja na sasa, ushawishi wao juu ya matokeo ya sasa hivi. Hii huleta akilini mfano halisi wa Present Perfect: I have lost my keys. I can’t open the door. Present Perfect: I have lost my keys. I can’t open the door. (I wamepoteza funguo yangu na siwezi kufungua mlango). Pili ni matokeo ya kwanza, na wa kwanza, kwa upande wake, kusababisha pili. Katika mfano huu, kamili wakati uliopo ni wazi mfano. Lakini kuna wakati wewe kutafakari, na jinsi ya kutafsiri kwa usahihi au wanaelewa? Angalau kidogo kupunguza mtizamo wa muda, unapaswa makini na maneno ya alama Present Perfect katika pendekezo hilo, wao ni kiashiria cha muda fulani. Alama hiyo ni pale wakati wote wa lugha ya Kiingereza na ujuzi wao wanaweza kuwa wa msaada mkubwa katika hali ambapo wewe ni katika shaka tu juu ya uchaguzi wao wa muhimu kisarufi fomu.

Vielezi kwa muda usiojulikana — kwamba ni kawaida maneno satellite Present Perfect Hizi viashiria kusisitiza dhamana ya muda mfupi hatua ambayo ilianza katika siku za nyuma na si muda mrefu uliopita kumalizika kwa sasa. Hiyo kielezi kwa Present Perfect ambayo ni muhimu kukumbuka, sasa kusoma wakati kamili:

  • ever — milele, milele alikuwa, milele
  • never — kamwe
  • just — tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, tu, sasa hivi
  • already — tayari kabla, hata
  • notyet — bado hakuna, bado, bado, hapana, bado
  • before — mapema, kabla hata tayari kabla
  • lately — kwa muda mrefu, hivi karibuni, hivi karibuni, kwa mara ya mwisho
  • of late — hivi karibuni, siku za hivi karibuni, hivi karibuni
  • so far — ina, hadi sasa, saa hii, lakini hadi sasa, hadi hatua hii
  • recently — hivi karibuni, siku chache zilizopita, siku za hivi karibuni, tu si muda mrefu uliopita
  • by now — wakati
  • up to now — bado, hadi sasa

Hata kuangalia maadili ya lahaja hizi kwa Present Perfect ni tayari inawezekana kuona kwamba wote ni karibu kuhusiana na wakati huu wa sasa, ingawa, kutumika kwa kueleza hatua ya zamani. Hizi vielezi semantic ni kuwekwa kabla kitendo, lakini baadhi yao wenyewe hasa matumizi yao, ambayo lazima waliotajwa:

  1. Kwa ulimi never kitendo ni kutumika tu katika usawa wa kijinsia, tangu pendekezo tayari ina kukanusha moja:

    I have never seen him. – I have never seen him. – Sijawahi kuona tena.

  2. 2. Maneno alama hizo Present Perfect jinsi yet already lately recently before of late inaweza kuwa na mwishoni mwa kutoa:
  3. He has seen many films lately. – He has seen many films lately. – Kwa mara ya mwisho, yeye inaonekana mengi ya sinema.

    He has not finished his work yet. – He has not finished his work yet. – Yeye bado kumaliza kazi yake.

    He has made good progress recently. – He has made good progress recently. – Katika miaka ya hivi karibuni, amefanya maendeleo makubwa.

    I have seen this cartoon before. – I have seen this cartoon before. – Mimi kama hii cartoon zamani.

    I’ve been here for an hour already. – I’ve been here for an hour already. – Mimi niko hapa kwa saa.

    We haven’t spoken of late. – We haven’t spoken of late. – Katika miaka ya hivi karibuni, sisi si aliongea.

    Kumbuka kwamba kielezi yet kutumika katika hukumu hasi. Kwa njia, kielezi ever mara nyingi zaidi katika interrogative:

    I haven’t had lunch yet. – I haven’t had lunch yet. – Mimi si alikuwa chakula cha mchana.

    Have you ever had a car accident? – Have you ever had a car accident? – Umewahi ajali katika gari?

  4. Vielezi so far up to now by now kawaida kuweka mwanzoni mwa wiki (wakati mwingine mwisho):
  5. So far, he has written ten letters to this company. – na kampuni hii. So far, he has written ten letters to this company. – So far, he has written ten letters to this company. – Hadi sasa, yeye ameandika katika kampuni hii barua kumi.

    Up to now, I haven’t found this book. – kitabu hiki. Up to now, I haven’t found this book. – Up to now, I haven’t found this book. – Hadi sasa Sijaona kitabu hiki.

    By now, she has read fourteen novels by Stephen King. – na Stephen King. By now, she has read fourteen novels by Stephen King. – By now, she has read fourteen novels by Stephen King. – Hadi sasa, kumi na riwaya yeye kusoma Stephen King.

  6. Present Perfect neno-kuyatumia lately (hivi karibuni) na just (kwa maana — tu kwamba) hutumiwa tu wakati Present Perfect

    The mail has just come. – The mail has just come. – E-mail alikuja tu.

    I’ve just heard this news. – I’ve just heard this news. – Mimi nimesikia habari.

  7. Na kama tunaona mchanganyiko wa just now kuwa na uhakika wa kuchagua rahisi uliopita Past Simple

    She was here just now. – She was here just now. – She (dakika hii) tu alikuwa hapa.

  8. Tunapotumia kielezi kwa Present Perfect kama recently tuna maana thamani «kwa mara ya mwisho» for a short period of time before the present Hapa lazima kuchukua fomu ya sasa wakati kamilifu:

    I haven’t heard from her recently. – I haven’t heard from her recently. – Mimi si kusikia kuhusu hilo hivi karibuni.

  9. Kama tunahitaji kutumia katika hukumu kielezi recently kwa maana ya «si muda mrefu uliopita,» not long ago kurejea kwa aina ya muda ya rahisi wakati uliopita Past Simple

    I started painting only recently. – I started painting only recently. – Mimi kuanza kuchora si muda mrefu uliopita.

    We met quite recently. – We met quite recently. – Tulikutana hivi karibuni.

Sasa, mtihani nguvu yako na kwenda kwa njia ya mtihani yafuatayo:

 

Grammar

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