In Ya sayansi By Victoria

Uchaguzi : deceive / mislead / delude

Katika maisha yetu ya kila siku sisi ni daima wanakabiliwa na udanganyifu. Hii inaweza kuwa ufisadi madogo au baadhi ya makosa madogo. Na wakati mwingine ni kuanguka kamili na usaliti. Kama wanasema, cheating inaweza kuwa tofauti, na kufanya hivyo kwa malengo tofauti na nia. Katika lugha ya Kiingereza, kuna baadhi ya vitendo kwamba kusambaza kwa «kudanganya.» Watatu kati yao itajadiliwa katika makala hii — deceive mislead delude

Maneno uchaguzi: deceive / mislead / delude — maana «kudanganya, kupotosha»

Wakati sisi kusema uongo, sisi jaribu kufikiria chochote katika mwanga wa uongo, kuficha kitu, nedogovorit kitu. Kwa maneno mengine, mtu alijaribu kupitisha taarifa haina yanahusiana na hali halisi. Kama sisi ni za uongo, basi kujaribu kupotosha kama na ukweli wowote au mtu.

Aliwasilisha tatu kisawe tofauti kwa misingi hiyo: mtu anajidanganya makusudi au ajali; kwa madhumuni gani alikuwa akifanya; jinsi hubeba nje udanganyifu, na nini ni matokeo ya vitendo kudanganya.

Kitendo kwanza — deceive — inaeleza udanganyifu, iliyopangwa mapema na kufanyika kwa makusudi. Kama sisi kutafuta hasa kudanganya mtu, basi lengo letu itakuwa ya kutafuta faida yoyote kutokana na hali. Haijalishi njia ambayo sisi ni kwenda kudanganya. Kitu muhimu ni kwamba kutokana na mtu kuwa na mtazamo potofu ya hali halisi na ambayo sisi kupata taka:

The company deceived customers by selling old devices as new ones. – kama ndio mpya. The company deceived customers by selling old devices as new ones. – The company deceived customers by selling old devices as new ones. – Kampuni kuwadanganya wateja kwa kuuza vifaa vya zamani kama mpya.

What a shame to deceive you in that way. – njia. What a shame to deceive you in that way. – What a shame to deceive you in that way. – Nini fujo wewe hivyo kuwadanganya.

The student deceived the professor by saying he was not quite well. – hakuwa vizuri kabisa. The student deceived the professor by saying he was not quite well. – The student deceived the professor by saying he was not quite well. – Studen mwalimu uongo, akisema kwamba anahisi mbaya.

Kitendo cha pili — mislead (kupotosha) — ni udanganyifu yasiyotarajiwa kwa sababu mtu hajui au haelewi hali kwa ujumla. Hivyo, mtu mwingine yanaendelea mbaya ya matukio zilizopo. Lakini kutokuelewana hii inaweza kwa urahisi kurekebishwa kwa kuwaambia kuhusu kiini halisi ya mambo.

Her words misled us into trusting her. – Her words misled us into trusting her. – Maneno yake uongo kutufanya kuamini.

He tried to mislead the police about his actions on the night of the murder. – vitendo usiku wa mauaji. He tried to mislead the police about his actions on the night of the murder. – He tried to mislead the police about his actions on the night of the murder. – Alikuwa anajaribu kupotosha polisi kama kwa matendo yake usiku wa mauaji.

His own ambition misled him. – His own ambition misled him. – Yeye inaongozwa ubatili wake mwenyewe.

Na kitendo jana, sawa delude mtumishi zinaonyesha makadirio kamili ya udanganyifu (udanganyifu kirefu sana), matokeo ya ambayo mtu anakuwa hawezi navigate matukio yanayofanyika kwa muda fulani.

He deluded himself into believing that he’s going to be promoted soon. – kwenda kuwa kukuzwa hivi karibuni. He deluded himself into believing that he’s going to be promoted soon. – He deluded himself into believing that he’s going to be promoted soon. – Aliwahakikishia nafsi yake kana kwamba itakuwa kuboresha hivi karibuni.

I used to delude myself with false hopes. – I used to delude myself with false hopes. – Kabla ya hapo, mimi kusifiwa mwenyewe matarajio unrealistic (lakini sasa mimi si kufanya hivyo).

The new president tried to delude the population of his country. – wa nchi yake. The new president tried to delude the population of his country. – The new president tried to delude the population of his country. – Rais mpya alikuwa anajaribu kupotosha watu wa nchi yao.

Wote wa maneno haya zinazoongoza Mbali moja kwa moja ya kuonyesha moja kudanganywa; na prepositional inayosaidia into doing smth kuonyesha matokeo ya udanganyifu. Mandhari ya udanganyifu huweza kuambukizwa kwa kutumia fomu as to deceive / mislead / delude smb. as to one’s intentions delude smb. as to one’s intentions Kwa maneno mawili ya kwanza badala ya as to matumizi ya uwezekano prepositional inayosaidia about smth. Na alama njia ya udanganyifu, matumizi prepositional inayosaidia doing smth.

 

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