In Grammar By Catherine

Sarufi ya Kiingereza amesema. Sehemu ya 1

Nini watu wanadhani, «walikuwa» katika classical sarufi ya kuona pendekezo hilo: He shouldn’t’ve done it Au ni hii: Where does she live, that girl? Uwezekano mkubwa zaidi, atakuwa kufikiri kwamba ni sahihi kabisa kupunguza katika kesi ya kwanza na ukosefu wa elimu ya ili neno katika pili. Lakini hii si kweli. Ukweli ni kwamba Kiingereza ya kisasa ni utajiri mkubwa, si tu lexical, na muundo wa sarufi. Na ingawa wao si suala la kawaida, lakini wao kutafakari mwenendo wa kisasa wa lugha na jinsi watu wengi wanasema kweli.

Ikumbukwe kwamba uzushi kuona yote amesema Kiingereza sarufi itakuwa vigumu sana ndani ya makala moja. Kwa hiyo, sisi kutoa sehemu ya kwanza ya mfululizo wa makala juu ya mada. Na ndani yake sisi kuchambua yafuatayo: kupunguza contraction upungufu ellipsis kuingiza insert kuanzishwa na tag preface and tag

. Contraction . Contraction

Contraction — kukatwa. Jambo hili ni la kawaida kabisa na kueleweka katika kesi nyingi. Kwa mfano, can’t = cannot don’t = do not I’m = I am na m D. Inajulikana kuwa kupunguza -.. Kusaini mazungumzo style, hata hivyo aina aforementioned ni ya kawaida, yaani E., matumizi yao si kinyume na ujumla imara kanuni za sarufi. Kulingana na «mazungumzo sheria,» tunaweza kuchanganya na Sirya modal, hata kwa chembe hasi not

Mike couldn’t’ve known about it. – Mike couldn’t’ve known about it. – Mike hakuweza kujua kuhusu hilo.

You shouldn’t’ve gone there. – You shouldn’t’ve gone there. – Je, si wanakwenda huko.

Colloquially, tunaweza pia kutumia kupungua kwa uwepo wa somo, walionyesha kwa majina kadhaa.

Mark and Jenny’ve passed the exam. – Mark and Jenny’ve passed the exam. – Mark na Jenny alichukua mtihani.

The President and his team’re going to the summit. – mkutano huo. The President and his team’re going to the summit. – The President and his team’re going to the summit. – Rais na timu yake kwenda mkutano huo.

Ellipsis. Kutotimiza wajibu

Ellipsis — umboyai, upungufu wa sehemu yoyote ya maandishi au kisarufi ujenzi. Jambo hili ni maarufu kabisa katika hotuba colloquial kama «kuokoa» neno, na kwa sababu hiyo — na kuifanya ufasaha zaidi. Umboyai ni kupunguza maneno katika mazungumzo, ikiwa kauli ni salama. Mara nyingi, upungufu huo kinachotokea kwa maneno mwanzoni mwa pendekezo au si mbali kutoka humo.

Kupunguza mwanachama Kamili kutoa Elliptical kutoa
Kitendo msaidizi How are you doing — Gani? How you doing — Gani?
Somo + be / will I’m alright, thanks — Mimi nina faini, asante.

I’ll see you later — Tutaonana baadaye.

I’m not sure about that — Sina hakika.

Alright, thanks — Naam, asante.

See you later — Angalia hivi karibuni.

 
Not sure about that — Sina hakika.

Sehemu ya aina interrogative (mara nyingi kwa vitendo see hear think Are you going with us — Je, wewe kuja hapa pamoja nasi?

Would you like some lemonade — Je, wewe kama kidogo ya lemonade?

Do you want some water — Unataka baadhi ya maji?

Have you got a little time — Je, una muda kidogo?

Do you like it — Je, wewe kama hayo?

Going with us — Wewe unakwenda pamoja nasi?

 
Some lemonade — Lemonade?

 
 
Want some water — Unataka baadhi ya maji?

Got a little time — Kuna wakati?

Like it — Kama?

Makubwa I mustn’t complain — Sitakuwa kulalamika.

I don’t know — Sijui.

Mustn’t complain — Je, si kulalamika.

Don’t know — Sijui.

Ibara The delivery man’s here — Courier hapa. Delivery man’s here — Courier hapa.
It / there It might get colder tomorrow — Kesho inaweza kuwa na baridi.

Is there anybody — Kuna mtu mwingine?

Might get colder tomorrow — Kesho inaweza kuwa na baridi.

 
Anybody there — Je, kuna mtu yeyote?

Tafadhali kumbuka! Kutokana na kutokuwa na usawa wa muundo wa sarufi na matukio katika lugha ya Urusi na Kiingereza, tofauti kati ya hukumu kamili na elliptical hazijionyeshi katika tafsiri, ambayo wakati mwingine hawezi kuwa halisi.

Inawezekana pia kama maneno mwishoni, hasa katika jibu fupi.

Will you be at the meeting? – Will you be at the meeting? – Wewe utakuwa katika mkutano?
I should be (I should be at the meeting) . – mkutano). I should be (I should be at the meeting) . – I should be (I should be at the meeting) . – Lazima.

Are you singing at the gala concert? – Are you singing at the gala concert? – Wewe kuimba katika tamasha Gala?
I hope to (I hope to sing at the gala concert) . – katika tamasha Gala). I hope to (I hope to sing at the gala concert) . – I hope to (I hope to sing at the gala concert) . – Natumaini hivyo.

Insert. Kuingiza

Insert — kuingiza neno au kujieleza kuwa ni kutumika katika hotuba (lakini si kuandika) na kufanya baadhi mawasiliano kazi (kufikiri kwa sauti kubwa, mkazo, maelewano na kadhalika D..). Kuingiza kawaida husaidia sauti hotuba vizuri zaidi na mantiki.

Mfano wa kuingizwa Madhumuni ya matumizi Mifano
Well Usemi wa shaka au pause kabla ya kurejea somo la majadiliano uliopita. Well, I haven’t been there yet — Naam, mimi si kuna bado.
Right Kuvutia, imani kwamba msikilizaji anakubaliana kuzungumzia. Right. Can you switch off your phones, please Right. Can you switch off your phones, please — Hivyo, hakuweza kuzima simu zao?

You’re OK, right — Je, wewe haki zote, huh?

I mean Paraphrase, maelezo, ufafanuzi. I speak this language, I mean, English — Siwezi kuzungumza lugha, I mean Kiingereza.
You know Imani yake ni kwamba msikilizaji anaelewa ni nini kinahitajika. I really liked French cuisine, you know, frogs’ legs and so on — Mimi kwa kweli walipenda vyakula Kifaransa, unajua, miguu chura, na kadhalika.
OK Kawaida ni amesimama mwishoni mwa kutamka. Imani yake ni kwamba msikilizaji anakubaliana na hayo. See you at 5, OK — Kuona wewe katika 5, sawa?
Now Kubadilisha somo, au kurudi kwa mada uliopita. That was interesting. Now, who wants to listen to another story That was interesting. Now, who wants to listen to another story — Ilikuwa ni ya kuvutia. Sasa, ambaye anataka kusikiliza hadithi nyingine?
Like Kutulia, dalili kwamba kauli haijawahi kukamilika, na lazima habari zaidi juu ya mada hiyo. I didn’t join them because it was, like, dangerous — Sikuweza kwenda pamoja nao, kwa sababu ilikuwa, vizuri, ni hatari.

Kuwekeza inaweza kutumika sio tu kuongea, lakini pia msikilizaji kwa lengo fulani.

There’s been another bank robbery. – There’s been another bank robbery. – Imekuwa mwingine wizi wa benki.
Really? – Really? – Kweli? (sanduku kutumika kuonyesha nia ya msemaji)

I’m sick and tired of his behaviour. – I’m sick and tired of his behaviour. – Nimechoshwa na tabia yake.
Uh huh. – Uh huh. – Naam, ndiyo. (Box msikilizaji kutumika kwa ushahidi wa kuvumiliana, kuelewa nini anasema mwenzake)

Preface and tag. Kuanzishwa na tag

Preface -. Utangulizi neno au maneno Tag — tag — neno (maneno) kufuatia kauli kuu. Wote matukio hutumiwa ili kuhakikisha kuwa msikilizaji lazima uende mawazo yetu, kuelewa nini tunasema.

That night club, what’s it called? – That night club, what’s it called? – Hiyo klabu ya usiku, kama ni kuitwa? (mfano wa maneno ya utangulizi)

What is she doing, that girl? – What is she doing, that girl? – Ni nini cha kufanya, msichana? (Mfano tagged)

Maneno au neno la utangulizi pia inaweza kutumika kuanzisha mada mpya.

Ireland, what a lovely country it is! – Ireland, what a lovely country it is! – Ireland, nchi gani ya ajabu!

Sasa hebu maoni video English Grammar Lesson: Colloquial or Formal Inawezekana kupata mifano ya matukio ya kwamba tumeona hapo juu.

Na sasa sisi kupendekeza kupita mtihani yafuatayo:

 

Grammar

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