In Grammar By Jana

Njia za kujieleza kwa hatua ya baadaye kwa lugha ya Kiingereza

Katika hotuba ya kila siku, sisi kutumia baadaye mara nyingi sana. Wetu mipango, ndoto, nia, malengo, utabiri — hii yote kwa siku zijazo. Si mara zote, kuzungumza juu ya siku zijazo, sisi kutumia fomu ya kisarufi ya wasiwasi siku zijazo. Hii ni kweli wote kwa ajili ya Urusi na kwa lugha ya Kiingereza. Hebu chukua mfano:

Kesho mimi kwenda . — I am going to the cinema tomorrow. . — I am going to the cinema tomorrow.

Wote Urusi na Kiingereza lugha, tu neno «kesho» inaonyesha kwamba sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya baadaye.

Hebu kuona nini kingine kuna njia ya kuonyesha hatua ya baadaye katika lugha ya Kiingereza.

Kuanza nje tofauti kati ya njia za kujieleza hatua ya baadaye kama will na to be going to

↓ Shusha meza « za kujieleza baadaye » (Sehemu ya 1) (*.pdf, 226 KB)

Hali ni matumizi ya Will To be going to
1. Mipango ya matukio ya baadaye yale yanayotokea katika siku zijazo. Rasmi zaidi.
The teacher will explain this rule next week.
Mwalimu kueleza utawala huu katika wiki ijayo.
Njia isiyo rasmi.
I am going to play poker on Saturday.
Mimi nina kwenda kucheza poker siku ya Jumamosi.
2. Sisi kutabiri kitu chochote kutokana na uzoefu wetu. I know Jack. He will be disappointed when he finds it out.
Najua Jack. Alikuwa upset kusikia kuhusu hili.
3. Tunatarajia kitu kulingana na kile tunaona sasa. Look at her. Is she going out like that?
Kuangalia saa yake. Aliweza kwenda?
4. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya hatma, kwa kutumia maneno: I bet I expect I hope I imagine I reckon I think I wonder I am sure I hope we will not wait too long for the car.
Natumaini sisi si kusubiri muda mrefu mno mashine
Pia kuna uwezekano, lakini inaonekana isiyo rasmi.
I am sure he is going to meet her at the airport.
Nina hakika kwamba atakwenda kukutana yake katika uwanja wa ndege.
5. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya uamuzi kwamba tuna uamuzi tu. Thanks for visiting us. I will call you tomorrow.
Asante kusimamishwa sisi. Mimi nitakuita kesho.
6. Tunazungumzia uamuzi iliyopitishwa mapema. Rasmi hali hiyo.
The decision will be announced at 14.00.
Uamuzi watatangazwa katika 14.00.
I am going to help my mum because she asked me about it.
Mimi kusaidia mama yangu, kwa sababu yeye akaniuliza kuhusu hilo.
7. Katika kifungu kuu, ikiwa ni pamoja na kifungu Umoja if kama kitu fulani (kwa kawaida hasi) inategemea kitu. If she doesn’t prepare well, she will fail the exam.
Kama si vizuri tayari, yeye alishindwa mtihani.
If she doesn’t prepare well, she is going to fail the exam.
Kama si vizuri tayari, yeye alishindwa mtihani.
8. Hatua katika kitenzi kikuu na chini hautegemei kila mmoja. She is going to the cinema, if you want too. Do you want too?
Yeye ni kwenda sinema, je?
9 pendekezo kuu linaonyesha kutoa, ombi, ahadi, uwezo na wengine. If you train a lot, you will lose weight. (Uwezo)
Kama wewe ni kwenda kutoa mafunzo kwa kura, wewe kupoteza uzito.
If he comes, I will let you know. (Ahadi)
Kama yeye anakuja, mimi itabidi basi mnajua.

Kwa ujumla, mtu anaweza kutambua muundo fulani ambayo husaidia kidogo kufanya uchaguzi kati ya miundo haya kwa siku zijazo hatua kujieleza kwa lugha ya Kiingereza: ujenzi will zaidi rasmi, wakati to be going to mara nyingi zaidi kutumika katika hotuba za kila siku.

Na sasa kuangalia tofauti kati ya Present Simple na Present Continuous kueleza hatua ya baadaye:

↓ Shusha meza « za kujieleza baadaye » (Sehemu ya 2) (*.pdf, 228 KB)

Hali ni matumizi ya Present Simple Present Continuous Future Simple To be going to
1. Ratiba mkataba, mipango isiyobadilika. The plane lands at 14.25.
Ndege nanga katika 14.25.
Chini ya mipango rasmi na mikataba
He is coming to us tonight.
Yeye atakuja kwetu usiku wa leo.
Chini ya mipango rasmi na mikataba
He is going to come to us tonight.
Yeye atakuja kwetu usiku wa leo.
2. Katika vifungu chini, vyama vya uhusiano after as soon as before by the time when while until Before you start eating, wash your hands.
Kabla ya kuanza kula, nawa mikono yako.
By the time she arrives, we will have done all the work.
Kwa wakati inakuja, sisi tayari amefanya kazi yote.
3. Katika suala la vifungu chini, alijiunga vyama vya if in case provided unless She will come and fix it, in case you can’t do it yourself.
Ni atakuja, na matengenezo ya yote, kama huwezi kufanya hivyo mwenyewe.
4. C maneno suppose supposing what if katika mwanzo wa hukumu. What if they let us down? How will we solve the problem then?
Nini kama wakishindwa yetu? Je, sisi kutatua tatizo basi?
5. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya nia ambazo bado si hasa kuendana. I am not celebrating this with them I am not going to…
Sitakuja kusherehekea pamoja nao.
6. Tunazungumzia matukio nje ya uwezo wetu. The unemployment will increase this year.
Ukosefu wa ajira kwa ufufuo mwaka huu.
It is going to be a very rainy summer this year.
Mwaka huu itakuwa majira ya mvua nyingi.
7. kudumu, isiyobadilika hali katika siku zijazo. The global heating will influence the climate.
Ongezeko la joto duniani utaathiri hali ya hewa.
She is going to live in New York.
Naye atakuwa hai katika New York.

Kama unaweza kuona, Present Continuous ni kutumiwa hasa kwa kueleza mipango, mikataba ya wazi katika siku zijazo.

Sisi sasa kurejea kwa iliyobaki aina tatu za wakati ujao katika lugha ya Kiingereza kutumika kuelezea hatua ya baadaye, yaani: Future Continuous Future Perfect na Future Perfect Continuous

↓ Shusha meza « za kujieleza baadaye » (Sehemu ya 3) (*.pdf, 218 KB)

Hali ni matumizi ya Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous
1. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya kitu ambacho lazima kuanza kabla ya hatua fulani katika siku zijazo na itaendelea baada ya hatua hiyo. They will be working together in summer.
Wao kazi kwa pamoja katika majira ya joto.
2. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya tukio hilo, ambalo ni jambo la kawaida, mara kwa mara katika siku zijazo. He will be eating his soup at 12.00 as usual.
Yeye kula supu yako katika 12.00, kama kawaida.
3. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya hatua kwamba ni walikubaliana mapema. John will be helping you to decorate the room.
John itasaidia kupamba chumba.
Aidha, kama sisi kueleza nia yetu, mwaliko au ombi, tutatumia Future Simple
John will help you to decorate the room. He offers his help.
John itasaidia kupamba chumba. (Inapendekezwa kufanya.)
4. Sisi ni kuzungumza juu ya hatua kwamba anaendesha kwa kiwango fulani katika siku zijazo. By the time she arrives, we will have done all the work.
Kwa wakati inakuja, sisi tayari amefanya kazi yote.
5. Tunataka kusisitiza muda wakati fulani katika wakati ujao. Next Tuesday you will have been studying in the University for one semester.
Jumanne ijayo itakuwa ni mwaka kama wewe kusoma katika chuo kikuu.

Lakini si kwamba wote. Hatua ya baadaye kwa lugha ya Kiingereza inaweza kuwa walionyesha pia na miundo mingine:

↓ Shusha meza « za kujieleza baadaye » (Sehemu ya 4) (*.pdf, 215 KB)

Kubuni Hali ni matumizi ya Mfano
To be + infinitive • Kutumika katika taarifa za habari wakati kuzungumza juu ya matukio ambayo yanatarajiwa katika siku za usoni.
• rasmi mikataba, maelekezo, amri.
• Hatua katika siku zijazo ni kudhibitiwa na watu.
• Kama sehemu ya chini masharti ya kutoa kwa chama cha if (kama sehemu paranasal linaonyesha matokeo ya kile kinachotokea katika sehemu kuu).
Taxes are to be collected by the end of the year.
Kodi kuwakusanya mwishoni mwa mwaka
The government is to issue a decree.
Serikali itatoa uamuzi.
The Prime Minister is to give a public speech.
Waziri Mkuu atazungumza hadharani.
If you are to enter the University, you have to study a lot.
Kwenda chuo kikuu, una mengi ya kujifunza.
To be about to + infinitive
To be on the verge of + ing verb or noun
To be on the brink of + ing verb or noun
Kitu kinaenda kutokea (au si) katika siku zijazo karibu sana. Ni kutumika mara nyingi katika hotuba za kila siku. He is about to leave. Hurry up if you want to catch him.
Yeye anaenda kwenda mbali. Haraka kama unataka kumnasa.
You are on the brink of loosing your job.
Wewe ni katika hatihati ya kupoteza kazi.
To be due to + infinitive Kitu ina kutokea katika kipindi fulani. This document is due to be published next Monday.
Waraka huu itakuwa kuchapisha Jumatatu ijayo.
To be set to + infinitive Kitu ni tayari kwa kutokea. My report is set to be my first professional disaster.
Ripoti yangu ni wazi ni mtaalamu wa maafa yangu ya kwanza.
To be sure to + infinitive
To be bound to + infinitive
Kitu ina au ni uwezekano wa kutokea. You are sure to be proposed very soon.
Wewe hakika hivi karibuni kufanya pendekezo.

Kama unaweza kuona, kuna njia nyingi za kueleza hatua ya baadaye, msiwe na wasiwasi kama baadhi yao kuonekana sawa sana, na huwezi kuhisi tofauti. Muda na mazoezi itasaidia bwana zote fichika na nuances ya lugha.

 

Grammar

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