In Grammar By Victoria

Nauni kwa Kiingereza (infinitive): matumizi, kazi, sura,

Sehemu hii ya hotuba, kama kitendo katika lugha ya Kiingereza ina aina mbili — binafsi na isiyo na utu the finite form / the non-finite form of the verb Finite fomu kitendo inahitajika na makundi kama vile mtu, idadi, mwelekeo, wakati, amana na kupendelea. Wao kutumika kama prediketo katika hukumu. Aina yasiyo ya mahususi kitendo ni kunyimwa ya aina fulani. Katika aina impersonal wa kitenzi ina muonekano tu na dhamana. Prediketo hawawezi kuwa, ingawa hutumika kama sehemu yake. Mara nyingi wao kufanya kazi ya maeneo mengine ya hotuba katika hukumu. Jumla ya Kiingereza ina tatu aina kitendo zisizo mahususi: nauni, gerund na Mmoja. Juu ya blog yetu ina makala juu ya kila mmoja fomu hizo impersonal ya kitendo. Na makala hii kujadili nauni kwa Kiingereza.

Kazi za kitendo nauni katika lugha ya Kiingereza: hukumu mfano

Kama tayari kutajwa, nauni ya kitendo katika lugha ya Kiingereza — ni namna isiyo ya binafsi ya kitendo ambayo inaonyesha hatua. Nauni mfumo wa kitenzi ni ya kwanza na ni aina hii ya kila kitendo zimetolewa katika kamusi. Fadhila mahususi ya aina hii ya kitendo ni uwepo wa chembe to to run — kukimbia, to cook — kupika). Bila chembe huu, sisi kutumia nauni baada vitendo vya utaratibu (isipokuwa ought to Vitendo shall / will Vitendo hisia mtazamo (kama feel — kujisikia, see — kuona, hear — kusikia, nk); Vitendo let (kibali), have (kuwa na), make (kufanya); Baada ya kujieleza had better (vizuri) na would rather (itakuwa bora).

We shall visit you tomorrow. – We shall visit you tomorrow. – Tutaona kesho.

He must reread this book. – He must reread this book. – Anatakiwa kusoma kitabu hiki.

I heard her sing. – I heard her sing. – Nikasikia yake kuimba.

Let him behave the way he wants. – Let him behave the way he wants. – Hebu ina tabia njia anataka. (Kuruhusu yake ….)

I would rather go to the cinema. – I would rather go to the cinema. – Nisingependa kwenda sinema.

Aina zifuatazo za nauni katika lugha ya Kiingereza (kwa mfano, kitendo to ask — kuuliza):

  1. Indefinite Active Infinitive (kisichojulikana kwa sauti hai) — to ask
  2. Indefinite Passive Infinitive (kisichojulikana katika ahadi watazamaji sauti) — to be asked
  3. Continuous Infinitive (muda) — to be asking
  4. Perfect Infinitive (Perfect) — to have asked
  5. Perfect Passive Infinitive (Perfect kwa sauti tulivu) — to have been asked
  6. Perfect Continuous Infinitive (kamili kwa muda mrefu) — to have been asking

Sasa hebu tuangalie kazi za nauni kwa Kiingereza juu ya hukumu mfano.
Nauni kwa sauti hai inahusu hatua kwamba somo na kwa sauti tulivu — hatua kwa madhumuni ya mtu chini ya kueleza:

I like to teach. – I like to teach. – Napenda kufundisha (mtu).

I like to be taught. – I like to be taught. – Mimi kama ni wakati mimi kufundisha (chochote).

Nauni muda usiojulikana haina bayana kati mchakato wa utekelezaji na muda mrefu inasisitiza nauni:

He likes to read magazines. – He likes to read magazines. – Yeye anapenda kusoma magazeti.

He must be still reading this magazine. – He must be still reading this magazine. – Nadhani yeye bado ni kusoma gazeti hili.

Kasoro nauni huamua hatua ambayo hutokea wakati huo huo na hatua ya prediketo (au kumfuata). Lakini nauni kamili kwa Kiingereza inaeleza kwamba hatua kabla ya hatua yaliyotolewa na prediketo:

I am sorry to have told him this secret. – siri. I am sorry to have told him this secret. – I am sorry to have told him this secret. – Nilikuwa napenda kumwambia siri.

Kama tunakumbuka, nauni inaweza kuwa si ​​tu sehemu ya prediketo What I want is to be left alone — Ninachotaka ni kuwa peke yake), lakini pia kutimiza wajibu wa sehemu nyingine za hukumu. Huenda:

: To walk late at night was very dangerous. – hatari. : To walk late at night was very dangerous. – Walking usiku ilikuwa ni hatari sana.

: She was glad to have moved to another city. – mji mwingine. : She was glad to have moved to another city. – Alikuwa na furaha kwamba wakiongozwa na mji mwingine.

: Who will be the first to start working here? — kufanya kazi hapa? : Who will be the first to start working here? — Nani alikuwa wa kwanza kuanza kufanya kazi hapa?

: You are too young to use make-up. – : You are too young to use make-up. – Wewe ni mdogo sana kutumia babies.

Hapa ni taarifa zote muhimu kuhusu matumizi haki ya nauni kwa Kiingereza. Hata hivyo, katika lugha hii kuna maalum misemo nauni ambayo hutumiwa mara nyingi kabisa, na kwamba lazima yazingatiwe.

 

Grammar

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