In Grammar By Victoria

Hisia subjunctive kwa Kiingereza – Subjunctive Mood

Napenda kuwaita subjunctive mada katika Kiingereza Subjunctive Mood Moja ya sehemu ngumu zaidi ya «Muundo» kwa sababu mbili. Kwanza, mwelekeo wa aina mbalimbali, wote yalijengwa (rahisi) na uchambuzi (vigumu zaidi). Na ili kujua yao yote, lazima kuelewa jinsi ya kuanzisha kila mmoja wao. Pili, subjunctive kwa Kiingereza na inashughulikia siku za nyuma, mara sasa na ya baadaye, na katika nyakati tofauti, kwa mtiririko huo, kutumiwa juu ya aina tofauti. Tatu, kuna aina nyingi ya mapendekezo na miundo ambayo hutumiwa kupendelea. H, na hatimaye, wakati mwingine ni vigumu kuelewa na kuchunguza maana ya ambayo ni thabiti katika kila kesi, hivyo wakati mwingine tunafikiri, na kama kuna dhamira tegemezi kwa Kiingereza au kwa namna yoyote kisarufi.

Chochote ilikuwa, kama bado kufundisha Kiingereza sarufi na kuelewa sifa za matumizi ya mwelekeo huo, hakuna vikwazo kwa kufikia mada hii na si kutokea.

Je subjunctive: inatoa mifano ya Subjunctive Mood

Kama tunajua, Kiingereza ina hisia tatu: dalili Indicative Mood muhimu Imperative Mood na dhamira tegemezi. Baadhi sarufi, lakini si wote, kutenga zaidi na nne — hisia masharti Conditional Mood Kwanza ya mwelekeo hizi huonyesha hali halisi ya utekelezaji katika nyakati zote tatu, ya pili — msukumo kwa hatua, kuomba au amri; Lakini tatu (tunahitaji) — Uwezekano alipendekeza, tamaa, mashaka au unreality wa utekelezaji. Je, si kutishika kwa vile ufafanuzi hazieleweki mwelekeo, mifano yote itakuwa wazi. Jambo kuu ya kukumbuka ni kwamba katika hali subjunctive kwa Kiingereza wanaweza kuzungumzia imaginary (ikiwezekana wanaotazamiwa) hali ambazo yanawezekana chini ya mazingira fulani au juhudi, au ambaye awali kamwe upembuzi yakinifu.

Had I seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about it. – wameomba naye kuhusu hilo. Had I seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about it. – Had I seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about it. – Kama Nilimuona jana, napenda kuwa kumuuliza kuhusu hilo.

Katika lugha ya Kirusi kitendo subjunctive mara nyingi iliyotafsiriwa na mchanganyiko wa kitenzi katika wakati uliopita na chembe KWA (na hii inatumika kwa aina yoyote ya muda). Kama chaguzi: Napenda, inaweza kuwa, inaweza kuwa angejua, bila kusubiri, nk

If I were you I should have gone to bed earlier before the exam. – kulala mapema kabla ya mtihani. If I were you I should have gone to bed earlier before the exam. – If I were you I should have gone to bed earlier before the exam. – Kama ningekuwa katika nafasi yako, kabla ya mtihani, napenda wamekwenda kulala mapema.

Tutaweza majadiliano juu ya aina mbili za kitendo subjunctive kwa lugha ya Kiingereza — yalijengwa Subjunctive I) na uchambuzi Subjunctive II). Kabla ya kufikiria njia kwa ajili ya matumizi ya aina hizi mbili, sheria kuzingatia masomo yao.

Kinachojulikana «zamani, kizamani» au kwa maneno mengine rahisi (synthetic) fomu ni si katika utungaji wake vitenzi yoyote msaidizi. Fomu hizo sanjari na aina ya nauni bila chembe to fomu rahisi au kamili ya wakati uliopita. Kama sisi kusema ya Present Subjunctive I, ni lazima ieleweke kwamba katika kesi hii, sura (nauni bila to bado unchanged, bila kujali mtu na idadi (k.v., NO — s Mwishoni mwa 3 lita U. Hr). Kitendo to be pia, haina mabadiliko kwa mtu na idadi katika hukumu katika mood subjunctive, na bado — be

I suggest that we all go to the concert. – tamasha hilo. I suggest that we all go to the concert. – I suggest that we all go to the concert. – Mimi kupendekeza kwamba sisi wote wakaenda tamasha hilo.

It is necessary that all people care of their health. – afya zao. It is necessary that all people care of their health. – It is necessary that all people care of their health. – Ni muhimu kwamba wote wana wasiwasi kuhusu afya zao.

Kama tunazungumzia Past Subjunctive I, mimi kukumbuka kwamba sura hii ni sawa na mfumo wa rahisi wakati uliopita Past Simple Katika kesi hiyo, kitendo to be ni katika fomu were watu wote na namba. Kama kwanza na la pili fomu wanajikuta katika suala la utekelezaji katika ndege wakati tatu ambazo si kutanguliza wakati wa kuzungumza.

If only he were free! – If only he were free! – Kama tu ilikuwa ni ya bure!

It’s about time you solved your problems! – It’s about time you solved your problems! – Ilikuwa ni mara ya kutatua matatizo yao.

Na kama tunazungumzia Past Perfect Subjunctive I, sura ni kitu kimoja kama kamilifu wakati uliopita Past Perfect Katika kesi hiyo sisi kuwa na kushughulika na matukio ya siku za nyuma ambayo tayari ilitokea kabla kauli.

I wish I had finished my picture long ago. – iliyopita. I wish I had finished my picture long ago. – I wish I had finished my picture long ago. – Mimi napenda bado alikuwa kumaliza uchoraji wake.

If we had been at the hospital, we should have helped you with your medical insurance. – tunapaswa yamesaidia kwa bima yako ya matibabu. If we had been at the hospital, we should have helped you with your medical insurance. – If we had been at the hospital, we should have helped you with your medical insurance. – Kama tungekuwa katika hospitali, tuna kusaidiwa kwa bima ya afya.

Tunawaacheni na tata (uchambuzi) aina — Subjunctive II. Aina hizi ni mchanganyiko wa vitendo msaidizi should / would / might / could na kitendo kuu nauni bila chembe to au neperfektnogo kamilifu. Aidha, katika miaka ya hivi karibuni would vigumu kutumika, na kwa watu wote na namba kuchukua should Could (ilipita kutoka can ni uwezekano wa kimwili wa utekelezaji (inaweza kuwa, inaweza kuwa) na might (kupita juu may ina jukumu la uwezo wa vitendo kuhusiana na mazingira.

Aina hii ya subjunctive kwa Kiingereza — Subjunctive II – ina mara mbili: Present Subjunctive II na Perfect Subjunctive II. Katika kesi ya kwanza wakati should sisi usio na kipimo kitendo nauni bila to lakini pili — kitendo kamili nauni bila to Tofauti kati ya sasa na kamili subjunctive kitendo katika lugha ya Kiingereza ni kama ifuatavyo: kutumia subjunctive sasa, tunazungumzia pengine hatua kuhitajika kuwa bado anaweza (hawawezi) kuwa barabara katika siku zijazo. Kama sisi kurejea kwa subjunctive kamili, inaonyesha kwamba wakati tayari kupita hatua kinachowezekana, na hatua yenyewe na bado katika mipango. Hapa tunaweza majuto, hasira, matumaini … lakini hakuna kitu, kwa sababu kila kitu ni tayari kilichotokea.

Why should I go there? – Why should I go there? – Kwa nini mimi kwenda huko?

The teacher advised that the girl should be sent to a musical school. – kutumwa kwa shule ya muziki. The teacher advised that the girl should be sent to a musical school. – The teacher advised that the girl should be sent to a musical school. – Mwalimu alishauri kwamba msichana alipelekwa muziki shule.

It’s a pity you should have fallen ill. – mgonjwa. It’s a pity you should have fallen ill. – It’s a pity you should have fallen ill. – Napenda mgonjwa.

If we had had to choose we should have come to another country. – wamekuja nchi nyingine. If we had had to choose we should have come to another country. – If we had had to choose we should have come to another country. – Kama tungekuwa na kuchagua, sisi ingekuwa wamekwenda nchi nyingine.

Kwa kawaida kuunda Subjunctive I kutumika katika vifungu chini, na aina ya Subjunctive II – katika kifungu kuu ikiwa ni sehemu ya hukumu tata au rahisi. Lakini hii si axiom, kuna tofauti na nuances. Juu ya «jinsi» na «ambapo» limetumika subjunctive kwa Kiingereza, unaweza kusoma katika makala «matumizi ya subjunctive kwa Kiingereza.» Na kisha kuwa na uhakika wa kupitisha mtihani «mtihani kwa subjunctive kwa Kiingereza.»

 

Grammar

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