In Grammar By Victoria

Complex Subject – suala gumu kwa lugha ya Kiingereza

Sisi tayari kujua kwamba katika lugha ya Kiingereza kuna mpango kama Complex Object au kuongeza tata. Kwa kawaida, sambamba na utafiti wa virutubisho vile, mara nyingi kueleza na tata somo, ambayo ni inajulikana kama Complex Subject kwa Kiingereza the Nominative with the Infinitive Miundo ni sawa tu katika wawili hao kutumia nauni kwa Kiingereza. Hata hivyo, tofauti nyongeza tata katika tata kutokana juu ya vipengele kuu pamoja na nauni ni noun katika kesi ya kawaida au tamko katika kesi nominative. Nauni Complex Subject kwa Kiingereza labda katika yote ya njia zake sita. Kwa mfano:

  • to write
  • to have written
  • to be written
  • to have been written
  • to be writing
  • to have been writing

Mapendekezo ya kubuni Complex Subject mwingine kipengele msingi ni kitendo, hasa kitendo, ambayo ni walionyesha. Hivyo jinsi gani hasa itategemea kitenzi, katika halisi (kazi) au watazamaji tu (watazamaji) ahadi itasimama prediketo. Inatoa na ujenzi wa Complex Subject kwa Kiingereza ni kawaida kutafsiriwa katika Urusi na mapinduzi kama vile «kusema, kusema, kufikiri, kuona, kusikia, aligeuka kuwa sahihi,» nk

Matumizi Complex Subject kwa Kiingereza: mifano na sheria

Kama tayari alibainisha, kubuni Complex Subject kwa lugha ya Kiingereza ni kutumika kwa vitendo fulani. Vitendo hizi zinaweza kugawanywa katika makundi kadhaa. Hivyo, kama prediketo katika hukumu inaweza kuwa vitendo kwamba kueleza:

  1. Uelewa, maarifa, kibali: to know (know), to think (kufikiri), to state (kusema, kudai), to report (ripoti), to say (kusema), to announce (kuwaarifu).
  2. She is known to live in France. – She is known to live in France. – Inajulikana kuwa anaishi nchini Ufaransa.

    The film festival was reported to take place in July this year. – mwezi Julai mwaka huu. The film festival was reported to take place in July this year. – The film festival was reported to take place in July this year. – Ripoti kwamba tamasha utafanyika mwezi Julai mwaka huu.

    He was thought to study here. – He was thought to study here. – Sisi walidhani kwamba alikuwa anajifunza hapa.

  3. Dhana: to expect (wanatarajia), to suppose (kupendekeza), to believe (kuamini), to consider (kudhani wanaamini), to ask (kuuliza).
  4. The student is expected to become a famous writer. – mwandishi. The student is expected to become a famous writer. – The student is expected to become a famous writer. – Inatarajiwa kwamba mwanafunzi itakuwa mwandishi maarufu.

    The tickets were supposed to be sold in the afternoon. – mchana. The tickets were supposed to be sold in the afternoon. – The tickets were supposed to be sold in the afternoon. – Ni kudhani kwamba tiketi itakuwa kuuzwa kwa chakula cha jioni.

  5. Mtizamo: to see (kuona), to hear (kusikia), to notice (kuchunguza).
  6. The car was seen to disappear. – The car was seen to disappear. – Je, unaweza kuona jinsi gari kutoweka.

    She was seen to enter. – She was seen to enter. – Je, unaweza kuona jinsi yeye aliingia.

  7. Pia Complex Subject kutumika katika lugha ya Kiingereza, baada ya maneno kama vile to be likely (pengine), to be unlikely (uwezekano), to be certain (hakika), to be sure (si lazima).

She is likely to succeed. – She is likely to succeed. – Pengine, itakuwa mafanikio.

The bag is not likely to have been stolen. – kuibiwa. The bag is not likely to have been stolen. – The bag is not likely to have been stolen. – Ni uwezekano kwamba mfuko kilichoibiwa.

Wote wa vitendo hivi kama predicates inaweza kusimama wakati wowote, lakini tu katika watazamaji (watazamaji sauti — Passive voice Kuna kundi la vitendo ambazo hutumika kutengeneza Complex Subject kwa Kiingereza, lakini katika mali (kazi — Active voice ahadi. Hii vitenzi yafuatayo: to appear — itaonekana kuonekana; to seem — itaonekana; to happen — kutokea; to prove / to turn out — upande.

The second part of the movie appeared to be less interesting. – kuwa chini ya kuvutia. The second part of the movie appeared to be less interesting. – The second part of the movie appeared to be less interesting. – Ni aligeuka kuwa sehemu ya pili ya filamu si kwamba kuvutia.

He seems to be sleeping. – He seems to be sleeping. – Inaonekana kwamba yeye alikuwa amelala usingizi.

Kwa kweli, ujenzi wa Complex Object na Complex Subject pose matatizo hakuna, lakini kinyume chake, kuwezesha hotuba yetu, na kuifanya zaidi sawa na lugha ya Kiingereza, si lugha ya lugha ya asili. Wao ni maarufu sana na sana kutumika, hivyo si kujaribu bypass yao kwa, na kulipa kipaumbele kwao.

Na sasa sisi kutoa ili kuthibitisha ujuzi huu, kupita mtihani yafuatayo:

 

Grammar

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